TFC 010: EPICC Review Week 4: Flight Stressors - Hypoxia

Stressors of Flight

  • Hypoxia

  • Pressure Changes

  • Thermal Changes

  • Vibration

  • Dehydration

  • Noise

  • Fatigue

  • G-Forces


Hypoxia

  • 4-Types

    • Hypoxic Hypoxia (Altitude Hypoxia)

      • Alveolar O2 Pressure / Concentration Deficiency

        • Altitude

        • Inadequate supply to meet demands

    • Hypemic Hypoxia

      • O2 carrying deficiency

        • Blood Loss

        • Anemia

        • Hemoglobin Abnormalities (Sickle Cell)

        • Carbon Monoxide

    • Stagnant - Blood Flow Deficiency

      • Heart Failure

      • Distributive Shock (Blood Pooling)

      • Compartment Syndrome

      • Prolonged Inactivity

      • Cold extremities

    • Histotoxic - O2 Usage Problem

      • Hemoglobin can’t onload oxygen, or utilized oxygen

        • Cyanide Poisoning (Nitroprusside)

          • Mitochondria unable to utilize oxygen

        • CO

          • Smoking

          • Poorly vented aircraft exhaust

Rules and Regulations

Use of oxygen by crew member and pilots

  • Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) - Chapter 8

    • PIlots must utilize oxygen at altitudes between 12,500 - 14,000 fee for greater than 30 minutes, and at anytime above 14,000 ft.

  • FAA 14 CFR Part 135.89

    • Unpressurized aircraft - Pilot shall use oxygen continuously when flying above 10,000 through 12,000 feet MSL for greater than 30 minutes, or any time above 12,000 feet.

  • CAMTS 11th edition

    • Pilots must utilize oxygen when flying above 9,000 feet MSL for greater than 30 minutes.

References

  1. FAA Airman Education Programs - Beware of Hypoxia by Larry Boshers

  2. CAMTS 11th edition Standards

  3. Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)

  4. FAA 14 CFR Part 135


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